T-90 User Manual

Product: T-90 Main Battle Tank
by The Omega Concern
Modeler, Scripter, etc: April Heaney
Support Address: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Product Revision Date: 2013-04-30
Manual Revision Date: 2012-04-30

Thank you and congratulations on your purchase of The Omega Concern's T-90 Main Battle Tank. Please read this manual before using your new tank.

The Omega Concern is dedicated to producing quality work at affordable prices, and we support everything we sell. All of our products are designed with the balance of impact on sim performance and ease of use in mind. If you find one of our products to be causing lag, behaving in unexpected ways, or otherwise being a pest, we need to know so we can correct it.

You are eligible for all upgrades on this version, being version 2. Also, your feedback is valued! If there's something you love, hate, or just think would be better if it were just a little different, we want to know. Your input directly influences the course of development and future features of Omega Concern products.

There is a technical support pass phrase in this manual, which you are strongly advised to use when first contacting support about this product. We do this because other people (not you!) don't bother reading the manual which contains the answers to their questions, thus taking our time and attention away from thoughtful questions not answered in the manual, such as yours. As always, emailing the support address above is preferable to offline IMs and notecards, both of which too easily get lost in the shuffle.

About the T-90

The Omega Concern's T-90 is a model and simulation of the third-generation main battle tank designed by the Kartsev-Venediktov Design Bureau (OKB-520) and manufactured by Uralvagonzavod (UVZ).

The Omega Concern is not affiliated with, nor endorsed by Uralvagonzavod or any other company involved in the design, production or manufacture of the T-90 series or its weapon systems. All trademarks and copyrights are and remain the property of their respective owners.

  1. Unpacking and Setup

    1. Package Contents

      The T-90 comes in a box. This box is your friend. You will need to rez it and select "Open".

      Press the button "Copy To Inventory", and you will now have a new folder in your inventory named "T-90 Main Battle Tank 1.0 (Boxed)" (or similar) which will contain the items from the box.

    2. Rezzing the T-90

      The T-90 is a mesh model, which means you will need a viewer capable of displaying mesh. The standard SL viewer is one such option, as are several others on the Third Party Viewer Directory.

      To rez the vehicle, simply drag the object named "T-90 MBT 1.0" from the folder in your inventory to an open area, bearing in mind that the vehicle has a footprint of about 13 by 5 meters, and you will need 140 prims free on the parcel. This vehicle uses no avatar attachments with the exception of the on-screen head-up display.

      It is best to rez a new copy of the vehicle from inventory for each use and deleting it when done, as opposed to taking one in-world back into inventory and reusing it.

  2. Driver/Commander and Gunner Roles

    1. Driver/Commander

      The driver/commander is primarily interested in driving the tank, maneuvering in response to threats, and setting up the vehicle such that the weapons can be utilized against targets. In the case of a single operator of the T-90, the driver/commander will also assume gunner duties.

      The driver/commander also has control over the remote KORD 12.7mm Heavy Machine Gun.

    2. Gunner

      The gunner operates the 125mm 2A46M smoothbore cannon and PKT 7.62mm coaxial machine gun.

    3. Driver-Gunner Handoff

      The driver (being the owner of the vehicle) can assume gunner control, or in the case of a two-person crew, can assign it to or withdraw it from the gunner, as described below.

  3. Operation

    1. Getting in and out

      1. Driver/Commander: The driver/commander boards the T-90 by right-clicking on the vehicle body and selecting "Board" (Some viewers may simply show "Sit Here" which serves the same function).

      2. Gunner: The gunner follows the same procedure as described for the driver/commander, but must get into the vehicle after the driver/commander has, and must do so before the driver/commander has started the engine.

        Getting back out of the tank may be accomplished by simply hitting the "Stand up" button, but everyone will laugh at you and call you a noob. Use the "EGRS" button on the HUD, which stands for "egress" and is explained below.

    2. The HUD/MPD

      All of the vehicle's systems are controlled by the HUD/MPD (Head-up Display/Multi-Purpose Display) which is also used to convey information about the vehicle. If you don't already have it attached, fear not, as the T-90 will happily pass you one. If you have a gunner, they will similarly be passed a HUD. Simply locate the HUD in your inventory (the "Recent Items" tab is made for this) and right click and select "Wear" from the menu. It will attach to your bottom screen position. If you have an T-90 HUD still attached, it will function without issue, and the tank won't try to pass you another.  When you get back out of the T-90, it will hide itself from view. To detach, simply locate it in your inventory, right-click and detach.

      When in mouselook (commander or gunner) you will see an orange overlay on top of the vehicle status display. This indicates the direction in which you are looking, relative to the body of the tank.

      T-90 HUD Overview

      T-90 HUD Data Entry Keypad

    3. Tell Me About the Buttons

      1. ENGINE
        Starts and stops the engine, and indicates if the engine is running (green) or stopped (red).

      2. KORD
        Allows the driver/commander to take control of the remote KORD 12.7mm Heavy Machine Gun. If functioning as the sole operator, taking gunner control will deselect the KORD, and the KORD will not be available while gunner control is active. With another player acting as gunner, the driver/commander can separately control this weapon.

      3. SMOKE
        Deploys smoke in an arc centered on the direction in which the turret is facing. The number just to the right of this button indicates how many sets of smoke grenades you have remaining.

      4. EGRS
        Allows you to egress gracefully from the vehicle, as opposed to simply standing up, which is graceless and embarrassing to those who have to witness it. (And often damaging to players using OCS)

      5. EJECT
        Eject is not the question. "Do you want to get rid of your annoying and/or unwanted gunner?" is the question. Eject is the answer.

      6. OPTS
        Options menu. From this menu, you may turn on/off the headlights, change the camouflage scheme between NATO woodland, desert, and urban, and adjust your M256 ammunition loadout as explained below.

        1. Setting the 2A46M Shell Loadout
          The T-90 can carry 42 shells for the2A46M, and while this defaults to 17 BM48 Sabot shells, 15 3BK29M HEAT shells and 10 3OF26 HE-FRAG shells, you can adjust the balance of shells as you like, while remaining within the 42 shell total. The 9M119 Refleks rockets are fixed at a count of 4.

          Before the tank is started or the weapons are used, select the Options menu. From this menu, select "Loadout." You will be presented with a menu of the following options:

          3BM48 S, 3BK29M H, 3OF26 F +/- : You'll first have to remove some shells from one of these slots, which will show in the "Free" count. You may then add any shells shown in the Free count to whichever slot you please.
          Done: When you're happy with your loadout, press this. This will commit your changes, but they can be changed until the tank is started, or you arm the weapon systems. After either of these events, you may not change the loadout on the current tank.
          Reset: Resets the loadout to the default 16/16/10.
          Discard: Dismisses the loadout menu and does not commit your changes.

          The loadout you decide to keep will become the default ammo levels for this tank. Meaning if you rearm/repair this tank, the weapons will be restocked to this level.A newly rezzed tank will have the default ammo levels.

      7. OCS Mode Indicator
        When orange, indicates the vehicle is in OCS mode. (i.e. if the crew is wearing active OCS HUDs)

      8. GUNNR
        In the case of a single driver/commander/gunner, this will toggle control of the weapon systems and turret tracking. With a two-person crew, on first press this will give control to the driver/commander, a second press will hand off weapon control to the gunner, and a third will deactivate gunner control entirely.

      9. FCS
        Toggles the Fire Control System for both the 2A46M main gun and PKT coaxial machine gun on or off. This also affects how manual ranging can be used to set fuzing distance and coaxial wind/range compensation, which is explained below.

      10. COAX
        Selects the PKT 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun.

      11. 2A46M
        Selects the 125mm 2A46M smoothbore cannon.

        1. Loading Status
          After firing, the 2A46M will be reloaded with the same shell type as was just fired, assuming there are any available. The loading status has three phases, in which the "LOADING" indicator will turn from red to yellow, and then the blue "ARMED" indicator will appear when the cannon is reloaded and ready to again be fired. You will also hear the sound of the breach being opened, loaded and locked as an auditory cue to loading and arming status.

      12. 3BM48
        Loads a 3BM48 sabot shell into the 2A46M cannon.

      13. 3BK29M
        Loads a 3BK29M HEAT (High Explosive Anti-Tank) shell into the 2A46M cannon.

      14. 3OF26
        Loads a 3OF26 HE-FRAG (High Explosive Fragmentation) shell into the 2A46M cannon.

      15. 9M119
        Loads a 9M119 Refleks anti-tank guided missile into the breach of the 2A46M cannon.

      16. MODE
        When using the 3OF26 HE-FRAG shells, this toggles the fuzing mode between impact and ranged fuzing.

      17. Data Entry Keypad
        Tapping the wedge on the right side of the HUD causes the data entry keypad to pop out. From here, you may enter the fuzing range for 3OF26 HE-FRAG shells only. Simply tap the appropriate numbers, and your entry will appear while you enter it in the digital display beside the mode button. The valid range is 75 to 500 meters. If you make a mistake during entry, press the DEL key. Pressing the DEL key again will cancel the data entry operation and fold the keypad. Also, pressing the DEL key without having entered any data will fold the keypad.

    4. Going Mobile

      1. Driving Controls

        T-90 WASD Controls

        The T-90 uses the arrow keys or WASD keys for gear selection and steering/pivoting control. The WASD keys will be used for the examples here.

        W and S control the tank gearing, shifting forward and backwards respectively. You do not have to hold down W to drive forward, simply tapping the key will increase your gearing, which will increase power to the drivetrain, which will move the tank forward. The T-90 has four forward speeds, neutral, and two reverse.

        A and D turn the tank left and right, or pivot it around when it is sitting still.

        The C or Page Down key will reset your throttle to zero and apply full brakes, stopping the tank.

        The E or Page Up key cycles the driver's camera between the default 'loose follow', rigid 'driving', overhead and drive-by camera modes.

      2. Starting

        Starting the T-90 after you've boarded is done by hitting the Engine Power Switch (ENGINE). Allow the engine a second or two to start, and then tap the W key once or twice to start moving.

      3. Maneuvering

        The A and D keys rotate the tank left or right respectively, and used in combination with the W and S keys to control gearing, the T-90 can get up inclines of over 45 degrees and over most any object lower than its nose and forward track wheels. If you happen to roll the tank onto its side, you will lose mobility.

      4. Fording Water

        The T-90 has a maximum fording depth of approximately 2.0 meters. Attempting to cross water deeper than this can result in water entering the engine intake, the engine being inundated with water and a complete loss of power and mobility. Bear in mind also that crews with OCS HUDs active will also drown in deep water if steps are not taken to abandon the vehicle and get ashore quickly.

      5. Stopping

        You can stop the T-90 by either deicrementing the throttle (S key) until you have reached neutral, or by pressing the C key while either in a forward or a reverse gear and you will brake to a stop. If you wish to disembark, press the Engine Power Switch (ENGINE) and then the EGRS button.

  4. Weapons

    Before you can select and take control of any of the T-90's weapon systems, you must be the active gunner. As the driver/commander, clicking the GUNNR button will toggle control of the weapon system. When the button appears green, you are the "active gunner" and as such, have control over all weapons systems.

    In addition to causing appropriate OCS damage (impact and blast) the weapons on the T-90 also deliver 100% damage in Linden Damage enabled areas.

    1. 125mm 2A46M Smooth Bore Cannon

      The 2A46M is the main gun and primary weapon T-90. It is aimed in mouselook, and is fired by pressing the left mouse button. The turret will rotate at a rate of 60 degrees per second in the direction the gunner is looking, and the gunner must wait for the turret to fully traverse to aim at the target before firing - The shot will go wherever the gun barrel is aiming when it is triggered.

      Employ caution when using the 2A46M in close proximity to friendly infantry – The overpressure wave caused by the main weapon firing can easily incapacitate or kill personnel that are too near to the barrel.

      By default, the 2A46M functions under a Fire Control System (FCS) in an automatic range-finding mode. This means that when pressing the left mouse button with the FCS engaged, there will normally be a slight pause, and then the gun will fire.

      The FCS calculates a three-dimensional, asymptotic targeting solution taking into account the following:

      Shell selection
      Your tank's motion
      Target range, elevation and velocity
      Wind deflection

      If, for example, you fire against a target that is in motion and airborne, the shot will be calculated to meet the target at the precise point the target will be when the shell arrives. When using the 3OF26 HE-FRAG (High Explosive Fragmentation) shells, they will be fuzed for the distance to the target, so in the event the shot is not a direct hit, the shell will still detonate near to the intended target. When fired in rangefinding mode, the FCS will give you feedback about the firing solution, which will look similar to this:

      RNG: 241 @ 106 T: 1.40 s VC: 2.75 @ 200 WC: 1.81 @ 090

      This means the target is 241 meters away at a bearing of 106 degrees. Time for the shot to travel to the target is 1.40 seconds. This is a moving target, so it is compensating for that (Velocity Compensation) by leading (aiming ahead) 2.75 meters at a bearing of 200 degrees. Also, to compensate for wind deflection, it is adding 1.81 meters at a bearing of 90 degrees to the solution. As an approximate (and not to scale) kinematic diagram, it would look something like this:

      1. 3BM48 Sabot
        The 3BM48 round is a kinetic energy weapon and is best suited for use against armored targets. As it is a non-explosive projectile, and therefore has little effect against a target unless it is a direct hit.

      2. 3BK29M HEAT
        The 3BK29M is a high-explosive munition for use against light armored vehicles, helicopters, structures and dismounted infantry. It has a moderate blast effect and shrapnel damage.

      3. 3OF26 HE-FRAG
        The 3OF26 is a high-explosive munition for use against light armor and specifically dismounted infantry. In addition to the local blast effect of the high explosive, this shell will fragment and throw shrapnel for a considerable distance – a deadly threat to any soft targets that are not behind cover.

        1. Impact Mode
          The default fuzing mode for the 3OF26 is impact, simply meaning it detonates on contact with a solid object. When used in conjunction with the FCS, the round will be fuzed for the distance to the target, so in the event the shot is not a direct hit, the shell will still detonate near to the intended target.

        2. Fuzing Mode
          Proximity fuzing sets a distance from the tank at which the shell will detonate. This is useful against aircraft, infantry behind cover,and other soft targets which are susceptible to shrapnel damage. The proximity distance can be set from 75 meters to 500 meters. The FCS (if enabled) will simulate a virtual target in the direction you are aiming, at the distance speficied by the fuzing range, compensating for ballistic drop and windage to detonate the shell at the location you are aiming with high precision.

      4. 9M119 Refleks Anti-Tank Guided Missile

        The procedure for launching and guiding the 9M119 Refleks is as follows:

        1. With the 2A46M armed, press the 9M119 button on the HUD to load a missile into the breach.

        2. In mouselook, aim at the intended target. If the turret is not rotated in the direction of the target, wait for it to come around, as the missile will leave the launcher parallel with the turret.

        3. Press the left mouse button to launch. The missile will leave the tube and you will see it flying forward from the 2A46M barrel. Engine burn time is short, as the missile will be in cruise for most of the flight.

        4. Stay in mouselook. Keep your mouselook cross hairs on the target. If the target moves, track it, keeping your cross hairs on it. The 9M119 will fly along your line of sight, and moving your aiming point will cause it to fly to re-acquire flight along the new line of sight.

        5. Visually guide the missile to the target until impact.

        The Refleks can be steered up to 90 degrees away from its launch orientation, but no more. For example, if you launch the missile due south and attempt to guide it to fly to the northwest, the missile will self-destruct approximately at the point it is turned west. This is to keep you from shooting yourself. If you leave mouselook or the missile flies over a region border, it will simply continue on its course at the time. Due to Second Life limitations, it cannot track your line of sight over region borders.

    2. 7.62mm PKT Coaxial Machine Gun

      The T-90’s coaxial machine gun is an internally-mounted 7.62mm PKT that can be operated by the tank’s gunner. As its name indicates, it is mounted on the same axis as the M256 120mm cannon, and its high rate of fire makes it useful for application against personnel and unarmored vehicles. The coaxial MG is loaded with steel-core 7.62 rounds and tracer ammunition at a ratio of 3B1T (3 Ball, 1 Tracer) and can be used with the Fire Control System disengaged to manually angle the main gun to engage distant targets. It is belt-fed from a supply of 7,000 rounds carried in the T-90’s turret, and can be fired in mouselook.

      In its default mode, the coaxial gun will use the T-90’ Fire Control System (FCS) to determine the range of the surface at which you are aiming, and will compensate for windage and ballistic drop to put the rounds accurately on your target. With FCS off, you must do this manually. If the FCS is disengaged and a target is ranged (via the default "R" gesture, or "/5 ranging") the range that is returned will automatically be used by the coax to calculate its firing solution.

    3. Remote KORD 12.7mm Heavy Machine Gun

      The T-90 features a 12.7mm heavy machine gun is mounted on top of the turret and is independently steerable, with an elevation/declination range of 60 to -20 degrees and a rate of fire of 650RPM. The remote system allows the commander to maintain 360-degree situational awareness without having to expose him or herself to fire from hostile small arms.

      It is highly effective against dismounted infantry, and can be used against low aircraft and lightly armored vehicles to damage or disable peripheral components. The high-caliber rounds fired by the machine gun are a considerable hazard to helicopters.

    4. Rearming and Repair

      The vehicle can be repaired and all its munitions rearmed by returning to the starting position (i.e. where it was first rezzed and boarded) after the following conditions are met: A) It has travelled more than 100 meters from the starting location and B) No less than 5 minutes have passed since starting or the last rearming and repairing.

  5. Gestures and Chat Control

    The T-90 will accept  chat controls from its crew on channel 5, so commands can be given in the form of "/5 command" such as "/5 engine" (without the quotes, of course). Commands which are accepted on channel 5 are:

    engine: Starts/stops the engine.
    gunner: Toggles/hands off gunner control.
    lights: Toggles the headlights
    options: Pops up the options menu
    eject: Given by the driver/commander, ejects the gunner.
    coax: Arms the coaxial machine gun.
    2a46m : Arms the M256 main cannon.
    ranging: Measures the range to a target in mouselook.
    fcs: Toggles the Fire Control System.
    smoke: Deploys smoke canisters

    Included in the kit are several gestures you can activate and use for most functions. The gestures use suggested key bindings, but feel free to reassign them to whatever works best for you. However, if you are not using a viewer that allows you to bind gestures to the keys these are, editing the existing gestures will not allow you to save with the current letter and number key bindings.

    Do note that you may have other gestures using the same keys as the ones included in this package. To locate and correct these conflicts, press control - G in your viewer and click on the"Key" column header to sort by key assignment.

  6. Taking Damage

    1. Compartmentalized Damage Model

      The T-90 simulates seven separate systems, each of which can take damage and experience degraded performance and/or failure. Damage to a component is determined by where on the body the vehicle was hit, with possible damage to nearby systems. The 'core' of the tank is its last reserve of hit points, which if depleted will result in its destruction. As a general rule, if you have to get hit by an anti-tank weapon, taking it to the front of the body is your best bet, as this is where the armor is strongest and where the T-90 is least susceptible to catastrophic damage.

    2. Vehicle Status Display

      This display is a pictogram of the vehicle systems, color coded from green to red to indicate the 'health' - better to worse, respectively - of each system from good to disabled, respectively. If a component suffers a failure or critical damage, it will turn red and you will hear an alert.

      When in mouselook (commander or gunner) you will see an orange overlay on top of the status display. This indicates the direction in which you are looking, relative to the body of the tank.

  7. Defense and Risk Mitigation

    1. Hull Down

      "Hull down" describes when a turreted vehicle positions itself on terrain in such a way that only the gun/turret is visible to enemy forces. This has the effect of making for a much smaller target, and the part of the vehicle that is presented as a target, the turret, is the least vulnerable part of the vehicle.

    2. Smoke

      The T-90 carries sixteen smoke grenades, which are deployed four at a time. Not only does this help in obscuring the view of your tank, but it will also help decrease the accuracy and locking ability of active seeking weapons. Bear in mind that to be an effective defense, a vehicle deploying smoke needs to immediately get moving after deployment, as a determined opponent may simply fire a weapon at your last known location.

  8. Troubleshooting

    1. The T-90 has been extensively tested and is free of any known bugs. If you believe you have discovered a bug, please contact This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. and provide, with as much detail as you can, step-by-step instructions for reproducing it. Things don't get fixed if we don't know what needs fixing. :)

    2. To rez the T-90, the parcel in which you are doing this needs to have at least 139 prims/prim equivalent free.  If you abandon the T-90 on land you do not own (As in are the actual landowner), it will delete itself after a short time to prevent littering.

    3. If things aren't rezzing for you, such as the gun rounds or missiles, check your group tag and the group tag of the vehicle to make sure it is harmonious with the area you are in. Some viewers give the option of always creating objects under the group to which the land is set, which may cause you issues if you aren't expecting it and travel to another parcel that requires a different group.

    4. If you seem to be doing no damage in OCS, first make sure you are wearing an OCS HUD. The OCS logo near the bottom of the T-90 HUD will appear orange when OCS is engaged and working.

    5. You may have other gestures using the same keys as the ones included in this package. To locate and correct these conflicts, press control - G in your viewer and click on the"Key" column header to sort by key assignment. The keys are merely suggested key bindings, feel free to reassign them to whatever works best for you. If you are not using a viewer that allows you to bind gestures to the keys these are, editing the existing gestures will not allow you to save with the current letter and number key bindings.

    6. Sounds, and not being able to hear them: If you're using a Viewer 2 or 3 based viewer, the default sound settings cause sounds to carry a few meters at most, then be unable to be heard. If not already showing, press Control-Alt-Shift-D and make the Advanced Menu appear. From that menu, select "Show Debug Settings." In the box, enter or locate "AudioLevelRolloff" and try setting it between 0.040 and 0.200 for better hearing.

    7. Asset corruption happens. Rarely, a copy of something will become corrupt and behave in very strange ways. The first thing to try is to unpack a fresh copy of the item from the box in which it came. If that doesn't solve the issue, you can have another box of the same item sent to you via the service kiosk at The Omega Concern's main store. Failing that, contact the support address and request a new box be sent to you and you will receive it as soon as possible.

    8. Your support pass phrase is "Victory Star"

  9. The End

    First, a heartfelt thank you to all The Omega Concern's customers over the years. You guys gave me the sweetest gig in the world, and I love you all for it. I do this all for you.

    Big thank yous to Eddison Campbell, Eric Sheppard, Daren Rappaport, Caete Chevalier and Ropemasterdom Skellerjup for beta-testing.

    As it always has been, and always will be: Fun is the whole point. Do go have some. :)